Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today and تزويد مشاهدات يوتيوب how does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and we only have incomplete solutions. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men do today and not in the past, has to be due to the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

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In rich countries the women’s advantage in longevity used to be smaller

Let’s see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there’s a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small, but it grew substantially over the last century.

If you select the option “Change country by country’ in the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points are applicable to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.

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